DIY Kaffir Lime Shampoo

Getting used to the routine of a full-time-working-mum means jam-packing my weekends with column-writing/ volunteering/ baking/ DIY projects.  This schedule leaves me with little time to try out new DIY projects, only those that are simple enough made it to my to-do list.

Luckily, my life-changing shampoo is one of those easy to make ones; a mixture of tea seed/ camellia powder and water.  I can hardly call it a “project” when all I do is combining two ingredients in a bottle and ending the two-step instructions with “shake to mix well.”  But it still amazes me how something so simple AND affordable ($4.90 for 1kg) balances my oily scalp when no commercial shampoo can do so.  I wouldn’t describe my current hair type as silky smooth but at least no longer limp and greasy.

The only thing I miss most from using commercial shampoo is a headful of great smelling hair after stepping out from the bathroom.

That’s why DIY kaffir lime shampoo intrigued me since the citrus fruit produces a beautiful fragrance.

I first stumbled upon the recipe via this 10-minute clip, but I could not find kaffir limes.  I realised much later that this ingredient, common in Thai cooking, is sold by the florists in the wet markets.  This is because customers buy them along with flower offerings as kaffir limes are believed to ward off evil spirits and bring good luck.  How interesting!

After a thorough scrub-clean with salt, boil to cook them in a pot filled with enough water to submerge the fruit.  I make a small fresh batch weekly with 6 to 8 big sized kaffir limes.  This usually costs me around $2.  After 15 minutes of cooking, the peel turns yellowish, and the fruit is cooked to soft.  Quarter the limes with scissors and transfer the entire pot contents, fruit and water, to a blender jar.  I don’t have a countertop blender, so I use an immersion blender.  Hence, I simply pour everything to a narrower but taller beaker to make sure my immersion blender blades are fully submerged during use.

Blend for a few minutes until you get a relatively smooth mixture.

This is not technically speaking not smooth enough, but it is the best my immersion blender can achieve.  A counter-top blender can probably produce a creamier version.

Next, I strain the mixture to yield a smooth and creamy “shampoo”.

Then I strain the pulp residue further with a cheesecloth/milk bag, no wastage.

Bring the “shampoo” to boil again to sterilise, cool it completely and transfer to a squeeze bottle.  Store in the fridge.

I add the pulp to my compost pot, hoping to produce organic fertiliser for my sweet basil plants.

To use, dilute shampoo with water (I use 1 part shampoo 4 parts water)  and massage to dry scalp, rinse thoroughly.  This shampoo doesn’t lather like commercial shampoo. Add one to two drops of castile soap to the mixture if you are not used to it, then slowly reduce or remove the soap altogether after a few weeks.

More on kaffir limes:

// this post by the Permaculture Sydney West has a long list of uses for kaffir limes

// this kaffir lime marmalade

// make kaffir lime tarts

// the leaves!

All these make me want to grow my own kaffir lime tree!

Zero-waste grocery stores: a heartlander’s guide

Zero-waste grocery stores: a heartlander's guide // Mono and Co

When I think of zero-waste bulk stores, small shops in the neighbourhood centres come to my mind first; wet markets for packaging-free grocery, hardware stores for spare parts and stainless-steel-everything, Chinese medical halls for loose-leaf herbal tea or medicine, even dried rose buds and lavendar, all sans the plastic bags.

Zero-waste grocery stores: a heartlander's guide // Mono and Co

I have shared so many of my zero-waste wet market grocery shopping attempts here and here that I started to wonder if I am boring everyone to death.  So it was really a pleasant surprise when Mothership picked up one of my posts and shared it here.

If you want to find out more about zero-waste grocery shopping in the heartlands, start by exploring the wet markets first.  Check out what your nearest wet market offers.

To locate a wet market near you, try these sites:

1)I found a list of markets on, a very interesting website to gather local statistics and data.  Unfortunately, it was last updated back in December 2016.

2) There is another list in PDF format on NEA’s website available for download here.

Here are 5 things I buy #byo style from the wet markets, that always surprise people who have not been to one before!

Zero-waste grocery stores: a heartlander's guide // Mono and Co

1.  Ground Coffee
Not your atas single-origin coffee for a home-brew flat white.  These are Nanyang-style blends, roast to perfection for making a full-bodied kopi-o.  Bring a small air-tight container, no more than 500g volume.  The stall-holder will tell you the coffee aroma escapes immediately after grinding.  If left standing unconsumed for too long, the grounds will end up only good enough for scrubbing body or absorbing odour in the air.

Zero-waste grocery stores: a heartlander's guide // Mono and Co

2.  Plain Flour
Prima Mill’s “for-professionals” ranges of flour are available through the dry goods stores inside the wet markets.  I have come across two types: Flying Fish brand (my favourite, with a 10.8% protein level) and Necklace brand (9.5% protein level.)  Let me know which one your nearest store carry!  My container allows me to buy up to 2kg of flour.

Zero-Waste Grocery Shopping - A Heartlander's Guide // Mono and Co

3. Grains and Nuts
Offering varies, depending on the size of the wet market.  I usually get my walnuts here.  You can also buy raw almond and peanuts, bake them into healthy snacks.  I bring drawstring bags to make it easier for stallholders to weigh and pack.  Once I reach home, I will transfer them to air-tight containers.

4. Assorted “Old-School” Biscuits
Bring an air-tight container.  Avoid the temptation to buy too many types!

5. Chinese Preserved Vegetables (酸菜,咸菜,大菜,四川菜。。。)
These pickles are great for adding flavours to Chinese-style meatless soups.  The stalls sell them by weight, this means buying according to requirement, say, a quarter head of the preserved cabbage instead of the entire head.  Bring a leak-proof container, and……

Zero-waste grocery stores: a heartlander's guide // Mono and Co… a reusable shopping bag to pack everything, of course!

Happy zero-waste shopping in the heartlands!

The only scone recipe I bake with – A Failed Attempt

The Only Scone Recipe I Bake With // Mono and Co

Update (29.09.19): A failed attempt no more!

Photo above, this is the first batch of scones I made.

And this is from the second batch, made one week apart from my failed first attempt.  A very steep learning curve, Hurray!

I think the first batch of scones did not rise nicely because I did not use a proper cookie/pastry cutter at first.

Not that I use a proper one now too, read on….

Recognise this “round cookie cutter?”

I upcycled from a 7-cm wide condensed milk tin by removing both ends using a can opener, making sure that there are no sharp points that could cause injury.  If a 7cm-wide scone is too big, find a smaller metal tin to upcycle.

One more thing to note: always WASH AND WIPE DRY IMMEDIATELY after using, so that the metal tin will not rust.

I am going to keep baking scones with this recipe because everyone loves it!

Double Cream Scones

recipe from here but I first read it here
Yields 10-12 pcs

1 egg
50ml double cream
180ml milk
1/2 teaspoon vanilla extract
450g self-raising flour, sifted
1/2 teaspoon baking powder
1/2 teaspoon salt**
50g caster sugar
110g cold unsalted butter, cut into small 1/2-inch cubes

glaze: 1 egg yolk + 1 tablespoon milk

// Note 001 ** the recipe calls for a large pinch of salt.  I used 1/2 teaspoon.

Preheat oven to 180C.

In a small mixing bowl, combine egg, double cream, milk and vanilla extract and mix well.  Set this mixture aside.

In a larger mixing bowl, mix self-raising flour, baking powder, and salt.

Run butter into the flour mixture with fingertips until they resemble bread crumbs.  Create a well in the centre and add three-quarter of the liquid mixture.  Stir gently with a fork, proceed to add the remaining liquid mixture until everything comes together to form a soft, shaggy dough.

Pour dough onto a floured workbench, using a scraper, gather dough together.

Gently fold the dough in overlapping directions about 4-6 times, without applying too much pressure on the dough.  The surface should look less craggy by now, lightly pat dough into a circle.

Sprinkle a little more flour on the dough if it is too sticky.  Use fingers to pat it to about 2.5cm thick.

Dip a round pastry cutter (5.7cm wide) in flour to coat surface, then firmly stamp out 6 scones.

Important: Lift up the paster cutter, do not twist -doing so will seal the sides and the scones will not rise up tall and straight. (like my failed ones below, which cracked!)

Gently gather the remaining dough together, lightly re-roll and cut out more scones.

Transfer scones to a baking tray, leaving two inches of gap between.

Brush top with glaze mixture.

Bake scones for 17-19 minutes, until well-risen or golden brown.
I baked my 7-cm wide ones to 20 minutes at least to make sure they cook through.

Transfer scones to wire rack to cool slightly.  Best served warm.

Extra tip: according to the recipe, unbaked scones can be frozen and baked at a later time.   When ready to bake, simply brush glaze on top and bake for 24-25 minutes at 180C.

Bread baking: a relearning journey

After baking my own bread at home for so many years, I am so used to removing pretty loaves like this and this out from the oven. When I saw my first finished bake from the bread machine, I can’t help feeling disappointed.  A shapeless loaf with a crust that looked too smooth/shiny/thick.  I didn’t know where to start slicing.

Yup.  I finally bought myself a breadmaker.  It’s so difficult to find an opportunity to make bread at home lately.  The bread-making process is not difficult; just plenty of watching and waiting.  15 minutes here, 60 minutes there, another 40 minutes of something, before finally bake it in the oven for 30 minutes.  Followed by the tedious job of cleaning the kitchen tools and utensils after cooking: measuring bowls and spoons, mixer bowls, dough hook, and kitchen board…

So I revisited my wish for a bread machine, looking forward to fresh, healthy, homemade bread every morning.   The decision process was pretty fast because  I have done my homework so many times in the past.  I chose a model that comes with a ceramic-coated pan, instead of a Teflon version.  The rest is then up to my relearning journey to convert past recipes into breadmaker-friendly versions.  My first two attempts were alright, edible but nothing close to the texture I have perfected with natural bread improver using root vegetables.

As with my past kitchen experiments, I am journalling it here so that I can refer to it and improve as I bake more often.  A third loaf is cooling on the rack as I type.

For my own reference only.  If you have the same breadmaker (it’s a Song-Cho) and a tried and tested recipe for it, share with me!

Experiment No.1 "Pumpkin Loaf"
Water 250ml
Butter 24g
Salt 1 tsp
Sugar  3 Tbs
Flour 420g
Pumpkin puree 100g
Milk powder 2 Tbs
Instant yeast 1 tsp

//Menu Selection: 
Crust color@light

4 pragmatic reasons to go green

I pen a monthly column in the Chinese daily Lianhe Zaobao, sharing with the readers my eco-friendly habits and tips.  Here is the loosely translated version of my article that was published on 5 August 2019.

How does one pick up environmental friendly habits and eventually stick to this seemingly inconvenient zero waste lifestyle?  Compare bringing along own set of reusables such as utensils, lunch boxes, shopping bags, and drinking bottles versus accepting single-use plastic/paper/styrofoam disposables;   worry-free shopping day out as the latter, right?

Even the stallholders are sometimes surprised by my bring-your-own (byo) efforts to go green.  Occasionally, one would attempt to be encouraging by complimenting me to be “saving the earth and the world” by going zero waste.  It is heartening to know that they are willing to accede to my requests to pack my order in my lunch box despite causing a temporary disruption to their “assembly line”.  However, I am also discouraged by the fact that I am the only person in the queue (sometimes, the entire hawker centre) that refuses disposable containers, utensils and plastic bags for my order.

In July, I attended an environmental talk hosted by the Temasek Shophouse. As the young entrepreneurs shared their journeys in setting up their social enterprises that tackle the local food waste issue, all attributed their commercial breakthroughs to an essential aspect of their business model; that it must make economic sense to their customers, either help them make a fatter profit or save on operational costs.  Just show ’em the money.

Assuming altruism doesn’t exist, how do I convince my peers to make the switch to a more sustainable lifestyle then?  I came up with four reasons, four pragmatic ones, inspired by the Economics 101 lesson takeaway from the Temasek Shophouse session (check out more upcoming events here.)

1. BYO habit saves me money

In our throw-away society, many have been conditioned to pay an additional 20 to 50 cents for the use of plastic containers for their takeaway orders.  These can add up if takeaway food orders are frequent.  Recently, some retailers have begun to charge for plastic bags, while cafes offer discounts to customers who bring their own reusable tumblers. My nylon shopping bags and stainless steel tumblers are now money-saving tools!

2. Zero-waste lifestyle saves me time.

Before going plastic-free, I spent a considerable amount of time sorting and cleaning stashes of recyclable PET containers and packaging materials.  A small recycling corner slowly expanded to cover half a storeroom with piles of “craft supplies” to-be waiting for me to work my upcycling magic.  Luckily, it dawned on me quickly that my rate of upcycling too low for my plastic waste producing rate.  I decided to stop accepting single-use plastics, and this simple step amazingly frees up a copious amount of time, now that I no longer need to deal with these avoidable plastic junk.

3. Place restrictions to boost creativity

According to this article, creativity can be boosted by restrictions as “the limiting nature of the task can bring out your most creative side.”  Without always relying on convenient and cheap disposables as my go-to solutions, I started exploring different waste-free alternatives or come up with my own solutions through improvisation or thinking out of the box.  Treat going single-use-plastic-free as a creative exercise for the brain!

Aside from creativity, I also picked up the good habit of planning ahead on what reusables I carry out as well as the discipline to stick to my shopping list based on the number of bags and containers I bring along.

4. Earth-friendly habits promote a healthier lifestyle

You may have heard of plastic pollution affecting the water and air quality, and marine life.  How about the problem of micro-plastics invading our own body?   As it turns out, what we thought we have thrown out as rubbish is coming back to haunt us, through ingestion.  Scientists have found traces of micro-plastics in the food we eat, such as fish and even salt.

It’s awfully uncomfortable watching stallholders pouring boiling hot soup into disposable plastic containers as harmful chemicals from plastic containers could leach into the food.  For the sake of my health, I would rather be safe by choosing takeaways packed in my own stainless steel Tingkat containers, even if this seems to be slightly more inconvenient way of pack food, compared to getting disposables.

These are some of my pragmatic reasons for turning green.  What’s yours?

How I unpack, organise and store my weekly zero waste groceries

How I unpack, organise and store my weekly zero waste groceries // Mono+Co

If you asked me what shifted my lifestyle to go eco-friendly, I would tell you about “TRASHED“, a documentary film released in 2012 that greatly influenced my plastic-free habits today.  The scenes where an endless trail of toxic plastic waste piled up in the landfills or washed ashore will make one wonder how much single-use plastics everyone in the world goes through every day to create such a big environmental mess.  It didn’t take me long to raise the sustainable flag and begin my zero waste journey after watching the film.

How I unpack, organise and store my weekly zero waste groceries // Mono+Co

Determined to weed out all single-use disposables and unnecessary (or unavoidable, in some cases) packaging waste, I turned to the family-run provision stores, traditional medical halls and wet markets in the neighbourhood as my less trendy solution to zero waste grocery stores, think bulk food stores minus the neat transparent dispensers, stylish canisters, and minimalistic decor.

Utility comes first.  An array of food items is displayed in the bags or cartons that they are delivered in.  Canned food and bottled sauces are stacked up to fill any space left on the shelves or walls.

How I unpack, organise and store my weekly zero waste groceries // Mono+Co

Besides getting my regular supply of fresh produce and dry foodstuff from these stores, I also made friends with a seamstress (who has helped mend countless seams and replaced worn-out elastic bands) and a hardware store owner (who finds my love for old-school enamel wares and natural bristle brushes amusing,) What a vast ecosystem that supports a waste-less lifestyle!

How I unpack, organise and store my weekly zero waste groceries // Mono+Co

These stores are only as zero waste as you allow them to be.  These small business owners have also kept up with Marketing101, packaging their products in clear shiny plastic bags to attract customers.  But there are still plenty of choices that don’t come prepacked or sealed, these are what I usually go for.

Not all stallholders are prepped for zero waste shoppers though, but thankfully the ones that I patronised are patient enough to accede to requests for purchases packed in my own containers or bags.  To save the stallholders’ time so that they can attend to more customers, I usually make my zero waste check out system as less hassle as possible for them, I can do the organising when I reach home.

Here are some of the packing habits I have adopted over years of shopping at traditional wet markets:

How I unpack, organise and store my weekly zero waste groceries // Mono+Co

1. Put all purchase on the table.  Stand back and admire the produce at their prettiest, sans plastic wrappers.

// I usually buy just enough groceries to cook about four meals, so that I don’t overpack my fridge and end up blocking the much-needed air circulation to keep the air cold.

How I unpack, organise and store my weekly zero waste groceries // Mono+Co

2. Remove these rubber bands before wrapping the vegetables with newspapers and storing them inside the fridge.

// I always stop the stallholder from packing the greens in plastic bags, they usually loosely cover the roots with newspaper to preventing soiling my shopping bag.

How I unpack, organise and store my weekly zero waste groceries // Mono+Co

3. Wrap hardy vegetables like bitter gourd, carrot, lettuce, broccoli or cauliflower in homemade beeswax wraps or newspapers.  Store in the fridge.

// I notice that produce kept in beeswax wraps stay fresh longer, but I don’t recommend buying and keeping vegetables for more than two weeks just because they are wrapped in beeswax wrap!

How I unpack, organise and store my weekly zero waste groceries // Mono+Co

5. Store vegetables that need not be stored inside the fridge in a breathable paper sack on the kitchen counter.

// Includes garlic, onions, tomato, potato, and today, I also bought monk fruit aka Luo Han Guo to make cooling tea.

How I unpack, organise and store my weekly zero waste groceries // Mono+Co

6. Rinse to wash firm tofu, add water to cover tofu, store in a container and keep in the fridge.

// Wet market sells firm tofu and regular tofu without plastic packaging.  Just bring a container of the right size.  I love tofu, explore tofu recipes here and here, differentiate different types of tofu here and here!

How I unpack, organise and store my weekly zero waste groceries // Mono+Co

7.  Button mushrooms are almost always sold in cling wrapped plastic boxes.  On occasions when I see them in paper box, I will grab enough to make a meal.  I will place the whole box inside the fridge.  They brown fast, so best kept in its original packaging with enough space to breath.  This site suggests storing in a paper bag.

How I unpack, organise and store my weekly zero waste groceries // Mono+Co

8. Rinse and hang dry produce bags and shopping bags immediately, ready for the next grocery shopping trip.

// Why buy when there are free ones?  I asked for these mesh bags which the stalls discard.  Useful for buying fruits.

How I unpack, organise and store my weekly zero waste groceries // Mono+Co

There you go, all nicely wrapped and organised.  The next step is to start cooking and use up the groceries!

Simple Pleasures

// unlimited supply of sweet basil at home, it’s that simple.

// found a random encouragement note in a library book.  I am not alone.

// removing labels from jars and containers without leaving any adhesive residue behind should be this easy to encourage reusing and recycling.  Refilling these emptied detergent bottles with DIY citrus infused vinegar cleaner.

// mom couldn’t resist buying a box of unbelievably-cheap-but-expiring-really-really-soon Betty Crocker pancake mix from the discount store but needed help to finish.  That’s how I ended up having pancakes AND waffles for breakfast.

// gave my favourite good morning towel a make-over using natural food dye: turmeric, a shade that I really love after using it for my DIY beeswax food wrap.

// using food dye means I can use my cooking pot for the project.

// because every drop counts.  Transferring cooking oil to a repurposed glass bottle.

New Pantry Item: Homemade Kimchi Juice

Homemade Liquid Kimchi // Mono + Co

Maangchi’s napa cabbage kimchi remains a must-have homemade staple, either as a convenient side dish for its many health benefits or as an ingredient for a quick one-pot mushroom tofu stew.

Homemade Liquid Kimchi // Mono + Co

Lately, I have also been getting excited about kimchi juice, a by-product of kimchi.  The last recipe recap post was put up two years ago.  Since then I have tweaked the recipe slightly, here’s a list of what has changed since then, and what has not, and how I yield somewhat more of the umami powerhouse sauce like this from my kimchi-making process.  I have served it as a dipping sauce for pot stickers, a very yummy idea!

++ Sticking to one head of cabbage ++

Homemade Liquid Kimchi // Mono + Co

Kimchi is super easy to make at home.  But I don’t want to go overboard and prepare more than what my fridge space allows or how much my family can reasonably finish before it turns too sour for our liking.  This means sticking to one head of cabbage for my family of four.  An overly long period of fermentation while procrastinating to finish up the batch doesn’t guarantee better kimchi.

++ Sticking to same brining method ++

Homemade Liquid Kimchi // Mono + Co

For the brining process, I am still using the same Daiso-bought oblong sieve basin that is the perfect size for one head of cabbage.  After rubbing coarse sea salt into each leaf and add enough water to cover the cabbage, I will use place a cast iron pot on top to press and keep the leaves fully submerged in the brine for at least 2 hours.  The cabbage is ready when you can bend the hardy part without breaking it.

++ Switching to Brown Sugar ++Homemade Liquid Kimchi // Mono + Co

This has nothing to do with making tastier kimchi, neither did I switch for health reasons.  I have been using brown sugar at home because this is the only type of sugar sold in bulk sans packaging at the grocery store.  Nowadays, I believe that reducing sugar intake is a better health tip than say, replacing white refined sugar gram for gram with expensive raw/organic/unrefined ones.  The colour of the porridge might turn out different at first, but after adding hot pepper flakes, the end result still looks fiery-red-delicious.

++ Switching to Immersion Blender ++Homemade Liquid Kimchi // Mono + Co

The handy and space-saving immersion blender is a godsend for my small kitchen when I need a simple tool to blend milkshake and puree cream soup.  No need to lug its chunkier cousin, the countertop food processor, out from the kitchen cabinet anymore.  The portable blender also works very well in this kimchi recipe to mix the sweet rice porridge with roughly chopped garlic and onion, and grated ginger.

Homemade Liquid Kimchi // Mono + Co

After one minute of blending, all the ingredients turned into a smooth mixture.  The best part of using an immersion blender: easy to wash.  Cleaning up after cooking is always a meh task for me.

++ Switching to a less garlicky version ++Homemade Liquid Kimchi // Mono + Co

The original recipe calls for 24 cloves of garlic along with spring onions and chives.  Now, I add just one bulb of garlic, 3 stalks of spring onions, and removing chives altogether from my homemade kimchi.  I have also been adding lesser hot pepper flakes, 3 heaped tablespoons instead of 2 cups stated in the original recipe.  As the kimchi paste-porridge is no longer as spicy as before, I will use up the entire batch for one head of cabbage. It may look excessive at first to be using so much kimchi paste on one head of cabbage, but I am trying to yield something yummy and nutritious as the kimchi goes through the fermentation process: kimchi juice!

++ Switching to Harvest More Kimchi Juice ++Homemade Liquid Kimchi // Mono + Co

During its initial fermentation, the cabbage will release more water and turn the kimchi paste into a runny liquid.  From time to time, I will press to pack the leaves down using the back of a spatula, to mix the kimchi juice well.

After a day of maturing at room temperature, the kimchi is ready to be served.  By now, I will transfer the well-ripened kimchi to glass jars and placed inside the fridge to slow down the fermentation process.  The level of kimchi juice will continue to rise as the fermentation process continues for the next few days.  By day three, the level of kimchi juice yield will be enough to keep all the leaves full submerged.  At the end of the month, when all the cabbage kimchi has been consumed, I will be left with a jar of yummy kimchi juice which makes a handy condiment for making soup, stir-fries and more, with a touch of that kimchi’s signature tangy, spicy flavour.

Here’s a recap of the recipe that will yield a thicker kimchi juice/sauce for use as a cooking condiment.

Need more delicious reasons to make kimchi?

// this scrambled egg

// this grilled cheese sandwich

// this tofu mandu

// this udon

// this pancake



adapted from here

napa cabbage, 1 head
coarse sea salt

Porridge for kimchi sauce
2 cups water
2 tablespoons glutinous rice flour
2 tablespoons brown sugar

1 bulb garlic
2 teaspoons grated ginger
3 heaped tablespoons hot pepper flakes
1/2 cup soy sauce
3 stalks scallions, chopped

To make kimchi with whole leaf intact, make a cross slit at the base of the cabbage, and tear the cabbage apart with hands from the core, you will have 4 portions of cabbage complete with green leaves and white stem.  If the head of cabbage is really huge, I will divide it into 6 sections.

Rub coarse sea salt in between the leaves, paying more attention at the thicker white stem portion.  Leave the cabbage in a shallow basin/pot, add water to cover leaves.

Optional: place a heavy cast iron pot on the vegetables to squeeze out the liquid in the cabbage.  Leave this aside for 2 hours, turning the cabbage over once or twice in between.

In the meantime, prepare the kimchi sauce.  In a saucepan, add water and glutinous rice flour to form a uniform mixture.  Bring to boil while stirring the whole time.  Do not leave the mixture to bring to boil over the stove on its own.  Once the mixture starts to boil and thicken, add brown sugar and simmer for 1 minute.  Turn off heat and let porridge cool completely.

To make kimchi sauce, blend roughly chopped garlic and grated ginger with cooled porridge using an immersion blender.  Add hot pepper flakes, soy sauce and stir well.  Add chopped scallions next and mix well.

When the cabbage is ready, rinse the leaves 3 times to thoroughly to remove salt.  Drain well.

Scoop some kimchi sauce with a clean tablespoon and drop it on the cabbage, spread the sauce evenly and generously on each leaf with clean hands and place it in a clean pot/container.  Repeat with the rest.  Pour and spread any balance kimchi sauce on top of the cabbage evenly.

Cover the container and leave it on the kitchen counter to ferment at room temperature, preferably overnight.  Next morning, you will check for air bubbles, which is a sign of fermentation taking place.  Press to pack the cabbage down to let the air bubbles escape and also for the kimchi juice to cover the leaves.  If you can reach the bottom of the container with a spoon, scoop the liquid from the bottom to transfer them to the top of the kimchi.  Taste test if the fermented flavour is to your liking, you can store the kimchi in the fridge where fermentation will slow down.

Of Muffins and Kitchen Compost

Of Muffins and Kitchen Compost // Mono + Co

I am lousy with plants but I somehow manage to keep my pots of sweet basil and Indian borage alive. There are two reasons why I try hard to keep plants along my corridor.  One, I get packing-free herbs without paying.  Two, I add trash to large pots of used potting soil.  Trash like eggshell, coffee grounds, tea leaves, and baking cups.

Of Muffins and Kitchen Compost // Mono + Co

I buy compostable baking cups and bury the used ones in a big pot of soil that I keep aside as my own lazy version of composting project.  That’s just one way of reusing trash from my kitchen.  I don’t have great gardening skills to tell you I am producing quality compost, but at least I am regularly harvesting basil leaves for my Aglio Olio recipes.

Regrettably, my non-compostable trash level piles high with plastic packaging from ingredients such as sugar, wholemeal flour, salt, milk and butter.

Although I send all plastic and cardboard waste for recycling, I really can’t be sure whether they will get that new lease of life as recycled products.  I have observed how the content in recycling bins are often mixed with contaminants and non-recyclable materials. Sometimes, bags from overfull recycling bins are transferred to general trash bins, undermining all the “rinse clean and dry” efforts of many household recyclers.

In case I have not repeated myself enough over the years, I believe reducing what I consume is going to make the most positive impact on the environment.  Forget recycling, because it only makes unnecessary trash generation less guilty.

I am sharing this whole wheat muffin recipe because it’s a keeper.  My daughter baked it for the family.

By the way, if you know how I can get zero waste butter, drop me a note will you?  I can easily cut down on cakes or substitute butter in recipes with oil.  But skipping butter on toast is a whole different level, especially for a bread lover like me.

Of Muffins and Kitchen Compost // Mono + Co


adapted from here

1/2 cup butter
3/4 cup brown sugar**
1 teaspoon baking soda
1 large egg
1/4 teaspoon vanilla extract
1 cup milk
2 cups wholemeal flour

** original recipe called for 1/2 cup sugar plus 1/2 cup brown sugar

001. In a mixer bowl, add softened butter, sugar, and baking soda with cream at medium speed .

002. Add beaten egg and vanilla to the mixture and beat till light and fluffy.

003. Add milk, mix well.

004. Remove bowl from mixer and add wholemeal flour.  Using a spatula, stir to mix the batter until all ingredients are just combined, or no spots of flour is visible.

005.  Line muffin tray with baking cups.  Fill cups 2/3 full with muffin batter and bake for 15 minutes in a preheated oven at 200C.